Generation of computers came into the mind, when humans were unable to perform some large calculations. So they created a calculating machine called as computers. As the needs of humans gone on increasing, there was development in the computer system.
First Generation (Mid 1940's )
Computers were using Vacuum tubes (Valves) as an electronic component.
Machine language was used.
Input was given through punch cards, paper tapes and results in the form of printouts.
Computers were as big as room in size.
Cost was very high.
Second Generation (1956)
Vacuum tubes were replaced by the transistors.
Size of transistors was much smaller than vacuum tubes.
Assembly language was used.
Consumed less power, faster and reliable.
Size of computers were came down.
Price of computers were also reduced.
Third Generation (1964)
Integrated Circuits(IC's) made up of small crystal of silicon semiconductor were used.
Structured programming language C and COBOL was used.
Speed and efficiency were increased.
Inputs were given through keyboards and output through monitors.
Size of computers, power consumption, heat generation and cost were decreased in greater extent.
Fourth Generation (1971 and present)
Microprocessor chip were used, made up of thousands of Integrated Circuits build on a single silicon chip.
Object oriented programming language and domain specific language SQL for database access.
High processing speed, high reliability and low power consumption.
Size and cost of computers were cut down.
Fifth Generation (Present and future)
Computers those are dealing with Artificial Intelligence (AI), expert systems and robotics are in 5th generation.
These computers are still in development phase.
Main goal is to respond to the natural language.
Use of Quantum, Molecular and Nano technology is going to change the face of computers in coming years.