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Generations of Computers

Generation of computers came into the mind, when humans were unable to perform some large calculations. So they created a calculating machine called as computers. As the needs of humans gone on increasing, there was development in the computer system.

First Generation (Mid 1940's )

  • Computers were using Vacuum tubes (Valves) as an electronic component.
  • Machine language was used.
  • Input was given through punch cards, paper tapes and results in the form of printouts.
  • Computers were as big as room in size.
  • Cost was very high.

Second Generation (1956)

  • Vacuum tubes were replaced by the transistors.
  • Size of transistors was much smaller than vacuum tubes.
  • Assembly language was used.
  • Consumed less power, faster and reliable.
  • Size of computers were came down.
  • Price of computers were also reduced.

Third Generation (1964)

  • Integrated Circuits(IC's) made up of small crystal of silicon semiconductor were used.
  • Structured programming language C and COBOL was used.
  • Speed and efficiency were increased.
  • Inputs were given through keyboards and output through monitors.
  • Size of computers, power consumption, heat generation and cost were decreased in greater extent.

Fourth Generation (1971 and present)

  • Microprocessor chip were used, made up of thousands of Integrated Circuits build on a single silicon chip.
  • Object oriented programming language and domain specific language SQL for database access.
  • High processing speed, high reliability and low power consumption.
  • Size and cost of computers were cut down.

Fifth Generation (Present and future)

  • Computers those are dealing with Artificial Intelligence (AI), expert systems and robotics are in 5th generation.
  • These computers are still in development phase.
  • Main goal is to respond to the natural language.
  • Use of Quantum, Molecular and Nano technology is going to change the face of computers in coming years.

Tip Box

Full form of COMPUTER: (Common Oriented Machine Particularly Used for Technology Education and Research).

In 1837 Charles Babbage, a mathematics professional conceptualize and designed the first stored-program mechanical computer.


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