Computers and digital component use binary 0 and 1, where 0 is low voltage (0 volts) and 1 is high voltage (+5 volts). Binary information is carried by signals and manipulation of binary information is done by logic circuits called as gates.

A circuit whose input and output signals are two states on and off. A gate is logic circuit with one or more input signals but only one output signal.

AND Gate

- Two or more input signals and one output signal.
- Output is high when both the inputs are high.
- Logic equation Y = A . B called as Boolean equation.
- Where A and B are the inputs and Y is the output for all standard symbols of gates shown below.

OR Gate

- Two or more input signals and one output signal.
- Output is low when both the inputs are low.
- Logic equation Y = A + B.

NOT Gate

- One input signal and one output signal, also called as inverter.
- Output is always opposite state of the input.
- Logic equation Y =
*A* - Where is
*A*is the complement of A.

NAND (Not AND) Gate

- Two or more input signals and one out signal.
- It has high output when at least one of the input is zero or low.
- All input signals must be high to obtain low output.
- Logic equation Y =
*A . B*

NOR (Not OR) Gate

- One or more input signals and one output signal.
- If one of the input is high then output is low
- Logic equation Y =
*A + B*

XOR (Exclusive OR)Gate

- Two or more input signal and one output signal.
- Output is low when both the inputs are same.
- Logic equation Y = A XOR B

XNOR (Exclusive NOR) Gate

- Two or more input signal and one output signal.
- Is combination of XOR gate followed by invertor.
- Output is high when both the inputs are same.
- Logic equation Y =
*A XOR B*

Logic gates are the basic components of all electronic components, without them electronic system can't be run.

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