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OSI Model

The Open Systems InterConnection (OSI) model is a reference model developed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984. Which describes how communication should take place between two nodes in a network.


  • Framework design to communicate across all types of computer systems.
  • Consists of seven separate but related layers.
  • Each layer performs specific functions and then passes result to another layer.
  • Each layer defines the process of moving information across a network.
  • Request of data moves from top application layer to bottom physical layer and reverse happens at the receiving end.
  • Remember its not a protocol but its a model.



  • 1. Physical Layer
  • 2. Data Link layer
  • 3. Network Layer
  • 4. Transport Layer
  • 5. Session Layer
  • 6. Presentation Layer
  • 7. Application Layer

Details of each layer is explained in further points of this chapter.

Tip Box

Read this reference model properly, because this will help you in understanding TCP/IP protocol and other networking concepts.


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