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Transmission Media


Pathway through which individual systems are connected to route data signals in a network.


  • Transmission media makes it possible to transmit electronic signals from one computer to another
  • These signals are nothing but binary pulses.
  • Each type of transmission media varies in its characteristics, that makes it suitable for a specific type of service.


Guided transmission media:

Consists of physical connection between source and destination via a wire or a cable. These connections are bounded to a channel to follow. There are three basic types of guided media :

  • Twisted pair cable
  • Co-axial cable
  • Fiber-optic cable

Unguided transmission media:

No physical connection between source and destination, instead they use air itself. These connections are not bounded to a channel to follow. There are two basic types of primary technologies used.


  • Travels in straight lines and therefore narrowly focused concentrating all the energy into a beam.
  • Periodic repeaters are necessary for long distances.
  • For transmitting and receiving, antennas should be aligned accurately.
  • Can not penetrate through buildings.
  • Best example is Bluetooth technology.


  • Uses microwave radio to prevent from atmosphere and act as microwave relay station.
  • They are situated in space 22,000 miles above the equator.
  • It appears stationary from the earth as it rotates with specific speed.
  • They can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another.
  • Capable of receiving, relaying of voice, data, and TV signals.
  • Bad weather can affect the communication.

Tip Box


  • Cost of media
  • Installation requirements
  • Bandwidth
  • Band usage
  • Attenuation
  • Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI)


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